10 Essential Steps for Growing Edible Mushrooms

Follow these 10 essential steps to grow your own edible mushrooms: choose the appropriate type, prepare the substrate, sterilize the media, inoculate the substrate, maintain appropriate conditions, monitor growth, regulate humidity and temperature, harvest at the right time, dry or store the mushrooms, and enjoy your homegrown crop!


Selecting the Right Mushroom Species

Growing mushrooms can be an enjoyable and rewarding experience. With so many different mushroom species to choose from, it’s important to select the right ones for your unique growing conditions and skill level. Here are some factors to consider when selecting the right mushroom species:

Choose a Species Based on Your Geographic Location

Different types of mushrooms grow best in specific geographic regions, climates, and seasons. When choosing a mushroom species to grow, research which types thrive in your local area. Some common edible mushrooms grown in North America include Shiitake, Oyster, and Portobello.

It’s essential to understand what type of climate is ideal for each mushroom species as well. For instance, Shiitake mushrooms perform great in mild-temperature climates with consistent rainfall throughout the year. Meanwhile, Morel grows best along rivers on moist soil.

Researching which varieties are suited better for different climates will help you know which strains are worth giving a try or not based on their growth requirements.

Here are some tips for selecting the right mushroom species based on your geographic location:

  • Research mushroom varieties that grow successfully in your local area.
  • Identify what type of growing conditions different types of mushrooms require.
  • Check online forums or social media groups created by growers in your region.

Consider Your Skill Level

When setting out to grow edible mushrooms at home, novice growers should start with strains that thrive in settings where optimum growth conditions such as sterilization and substrate preparation have already been met beforehand.

Some strains of mushrooms require more complex growing environments and techniques than others do, making them unsuitable choices for beginners.

Good candidates for novices include oyster Mushrooms – easy-to-grow and maintain highly versatile species – possibly Pink oyster (Pleurotus salmoneostramineus) variety known for its resistance against disease!

If you’re interested in something vibrant with attractive colors instead of flavor Pink Oyster may be a suitable option.

Here are some factors to consider when choosing the right mushroom species based on your skill level:

  • Determine the difficulty level of different mushroom species you’re interested in.
  • Start with easy-to-grow strains and work towards more complex varieties.
  • Check out government resources or local agricultural courses online – available nowadays for everyone.

Evaluate Your Growing Conditions

The growing conditions that your chosen mushroom species requires should match what is attainable in your location. Most edible mushroom varieties require a substrate such as hardwood logs, straw, sawdust, or compost.

You must understand your growth area conditions to select a species that will flourish and avoid continually experimenting with different environmental variables.

Similarly, certain requirements call for humidity control alongside other elements like temperature regulation during each stage of growth carefully monitored to ensure proper development.

Here are some factors to consider when evaluating your growing conditions:

  • Consider what type of substrate is required for the species you want to grow.
  • Determine if temperature and/or humidity control and ventilation needs monitoring frequently.
  • Position aspects like lighting distance from crops or an alternative arrangement before setup occurs beforehand.

Overall, selecting the right edible mushroom species should account fundamental requirements such as location climate specifics, growers accessibility, and maintenance practices that accommodate their specific needs. Knowing which kind requires less care can contribute positively to preserving its integrity over time!

What is Edible mushroom?

Edible mushrooms are fungi that can be safely consumed and used in cooking due to their beneficial nutritional value and taste. [Wikipedia]

Acquiring the Proper Tools and Materials

Growing edible mushrooms requires some specific tools and materials that are essential for a successful harvest. As with any hobby or skill, having the proper equipment will make the process smoother and more efficient.

Basic Supplies Needed for Growing Mushrooms

Spawn or Spores

Spawn or spores are necessary for growing mushrooms. Spawn is sterilized, nutrient-rich material with mushroom mycelium (the vegetative part of fungus), while spores are microscopic reproductive cells produced by ripe mushrooms. They form colonies that eventually become fruiting bodies – actual mushrooms.

Choose a source of spawn or spores that suits you best: online retailers, local stores or garden centers. Different sources offer various strains of fungi, so it’s important to research and compare before deciding what to buy.


The substrate is the growing medium where mycelium spreads its threads and colonizes before producing fruiting bodies. The substrate is usually composed of different organic materials like straw, sawdust or coffee grounds.

Mushroom cultivation notoriously depends on finding an appropriate substrate. Again research and experiments are paramount when trying to find what performs best for your specific needs.


Mushrooms thrive in dark environments which makes containers an important element in your setup. Choose containers where they can’t take up too much space but still allow plenty of room for fruiting bodies to grow in different directions without touching each other.

You can either purchase containers designed specifically for mushroom-growing or repurpose items you already have at home such as buckets or plastic shoe boxes- remember to drill holes in them so fungi won’t suffocate.

Growing Medium

The purpose of using a growing medium underneath your containers is to create air circulation evenly throughout your substrates that will make mushrooms grow quicker. It can be a combination of aspen chips, rice hulls and bran or straight vermiculite.

Water Source

Mushrooms require an adequate amount of water to grow- but aim for balance as too much humidity will lead to mold growth while insufficient hydration will defuse cell activity. You can use a spray bottle or humidifier to regulate moisture levels inside the growing area.

Ensure you are using clean water to avoid contamination: distilled, purified spring water or rainwater are all good options but don’t use chlorinated tap water as it could stall or damage mycelium growth.

Heating Element

Mushrooms need constant temperatures of around 65-75 degrees Fahrenheit (18-24°C) in order to fruit so it’s essential having a heating element in place like space heaters, heated mats, thermostat-controlled systems and so on.

Again do some research when deciding which equipment is best for your budget and needs, keeping in mind the size of your grow room and geographical location to achieve the right temperature range.


Humidity levels between 90-100% are optimal for mushroom cultivation leading to more significant yields – except when pinning (when fruiting bodies start forming), then humidity should be reduced by around 5%.

Keep track regularly -hygrometers can help out here- if necessary install a humidifier in your growing area since adjusting it by hand can be quite difficult otherwise.

Advanced Tools That Can Improve Your Yield

Apart from basic supplies, there are some advanced tools which if used appropriately, could significantly improve your yield:

Inoculation Tools

For substrate inoculation -the process where you introduce spawn into your chosen medium-, it’s recommended using specific tools that allow sterile handling such as flame sterilized needles or scalpels.

They seem minimal but these small details ensure purity when introducing mycelium into new areas of your substrate reducing the risk of introducing contaminants.

Sterilization Equipment

Even though mushrooms are hardy, they can still have pathogens such as bacteria or mold in their early growth stages. This makes sterilization equipment one essential tool in those circumstances, specifically an autoclave, high-pressure steam systems that use heat and pressure to kill any residing bacteria with certainty.

A less costly alternative could be pressure cookers- but keep in mind that they might not achieve the same results as autoclaves, leading to a higher risk of contamination.

Lab Equipment

Lab equipment is particularly useful for advanced growers who want better parts-per-million (PPM) control and well-monitored atmospheres for their mushroom projects.

Devices like pH meters (for checking acidity levels), EC meters (measuring electrical conductivity), and CO2 sensors can take your growing game to a whole new level but expect learning curves here: these tools need attention and precision when handling them.


While some mushroom farmers operate strictly indoors under artificial lights, greenhouses provide an excellent environment for growing mushrooms too. They provide lots of indirect light, bright humidity-free environments -especially if ventilated-, temperature regulation tools and lower energy costs than keeping lights on all day.

Some mushroom cultivators claim that using greenhouses has substantially boosted their yields by giving fungi access to nature’s elements. However be advised that the greenhouse setup needs constant maintenance especially regarding humidity, proper ventilation settings and pests management.

Creating the Ideal Growing Environment

Growing edible mushrooms can be a rewarding and fulfilling experience. However, to ensure a bountiful harvest, you need to create the ideal growing environment for your mushroom farm. The right conditions for different mushroom species are dependent on various factors such as temperature, humidity, lighting and other environmental factors.

Here are ten essential steps that can help you create the perfect growing environment for producing healthy and delicious mushrooms year-round.

Temperature and Humidity Control

Mushrooms are sensitive to changes in temperature and humidity levels. If the temperature or humidity fluctuates outside of optimal levels, it can cause slow growth or even death to your crop. Therefore it is important that you have an effective system in place that regulates both aspects.

Optimal Temperature Range

Different mushrooms species require different temperatures to grow optimally. Generally speaking, most edible mushrooms grow best between 18-23°C (64-73°F), though some species prefer cooler or warmer temperatures than this range. For instance:

  • Shiitake mushrooms prefer a slightly cooler average temperature of around 10°C (50°F) while
  • Oyster mushrooms do well at temperatures around 21°C (70°F).

It’s really important to determine the ideal temperature range for your chosen mushroom variety so then you can set up a plan for monitoring and maintaining the required temperature.

Ideal Humidity Levels

Humidity is also an important factor when it comes to growing mushrooms; they love damp environments with high relative humidity which keeps their roots from drying out during growth stages.

For most mushroom types, an optimal humidity range should be kept between 85% – 95%, although certain varieties require specific ranges like:

  • Button Mushrooms – need an ideal range of 65%-75% relative humidity;
  • Lions Mane – needs higher Humidity levels (90% – 95%).

Keeping track of these specific needs helps ensure healthy growth rates throughout the stages of growth.

Controlling Temperature and Humidity Fluctuations

Maintaining the ideal temperature and humidity range requires a bit more than just setting it up once. Several environmental factors can result in fluctuations, influencing the progress of your crop.

Some ways to stable environmental elements are:

  • Insulate your room or growing area;
  • Implement proper heating, cooling and ventilation systems,
  • Install humidifiers or dehumidifiers if necessary;

By taking these measures to control temperature and humidity fluctuations, you’ll be able to maintain optimal conditions needed for your mushrooms to thrive.

Light Requirements for Different Mushroom Species

Light requirements vary among mushroom species. Some mushrooms require full light while others prefer partial shade or total darkness. For instance:

  • Shiitake does well at around 12 hours of continuous light a day
  • White Button Mushrooms however do not need any natural lighting during their growth phase

It’s important to know which light conditions are required so then you can experiment with different artificial lighting setups which give sufficient results without damaging the crops.

Choosing the Right Location for Your Mushroom Farm

The location you choose for your mushroom farm will affect numerous aspects of its sustainability; temperature variance throughout varying seasons from winter until summer time, possibility in installing certain ventilation systems other fundamental equipment, availability in terms of rent ad utilities etc).

Certain locations that can offer cooler temperatures ready out betters crops as oppose to climates which may be warmer and more challenging due to maintaining those consistent conditions indoors. The best option is a location where less effort is required on maintaining ideal conditions this saves time, electricity bill money and energy when operate scale businesses.


Ventilation plays an essential role in a healthy mushroom farming environment. Fresh air flow helps regulate carbon dioxide levels which can accumulate quickly especially when working indoor setups – CO2 build-up increases heat regulation demands make it harder for AC units affecting performance endurance through multiple months during warm/hot seasons.

Good ventilation helps regulate the following factors:

  • Carbon dioxide levels
  • Temperature and Humidity levels
  • Fungal pathogen

Ensuring good ventilation can be achieved by installing simple vents that do not require heavy use of energy or complex ducting work, something as basic air flow going in from one side of the rooms and out through opposing wall ducts will suffice.

Sanitation Methods to Prevent Contamination

Contamination is a significant problem for any mushroom grower since fungi spores are reproducing and spreading areas within short periods. It can occur even before producing visible signs which if not identified early on become unmanageable once conditions have been transformed into soli.

To ensure that your environment stays sterile you need to practice proper sanitation methods, such as:

  • Cleaning frequently in order to control fungal pathogens,
  • Using organic fungicides;
  • Testing regularly for harmful microbial growth;

Using these tactics significantly reduces the probability of contamination outbreaks and guarantees healthy crops throughout their life cycle.

Growing Mushrooms in Containers vs. in the Ground

Mushroom containers offer growers an added level of control over environmental factors like temperature, light, humidity needed for optimal growth stages. They’re simple to setup effectively no-fuss systems reasonably sized topsoil containers become fitting permanent homes for certain types of mushrooms, whilst remaining very comfortable due to portability aspects allowing repositioning around your farmstead many times.

In-ground growing has an external sense of freedom; some types including shiitake mushrooms work better with this structure when they have established themselves roots extending deep within soil & enriching soil elements with valuable nutrients inside controlled-temperature environments helping them thrive further than just surface roots.

When deciding on what method works best for you it’s important to consider cooler enviroments tend to suit container growing whilst underground options come with a natural sense movement through broader area spaces enhancing crop density if temperatures are constant and shade coverage exists.

Ultimately the decision to grow you own mushrooms comes down to personal choice and the space/environment available for this, each growing strategy holds advantages depending how keen you are in becoming a self-efficient grower. By following these 10 essential steps for growing edible mushrooms, your produce is set up for an unprecedented harvest when planned right in accordance with different environmental factors providing good quality crop production throughout all seasons of the year!

Preparing Your Substrate

When growing edible mushrooms, one of the most important steps is preparing your substrate. The substrate is the material that provides nourishment and support for the fungi to grow. Without a properly prepared substrate, your mushroom crops may not thrive or could even fail completely.

In general, there are three types of substrates that are commonly used in mushroom cultivation: straw, hay and spent grains, and sawdust/wood chips. Each has its own unique set of benefits and drawbacks, so it’s important to choose the right one depending on your specific needs.

Types of Substrates


Straw is a popular choice for many mushroom growers because it’s easy to find and relatively inexpensive compared to other options. Most types of straw work well as long as they’re not chemically treated in any way (this can include pesticides or herbicides). Wheat straw is particularly good because it’s fibrous and retains moisture well.

To prepare straw for mushroom cultivation:

  • Break up bales into small pieces and soak in water for 24 hours.
  • Drain off excess water and fill bags with straw.
  • Sterilize bags using steam or an oven before inoculating with mushroom spawn.
Hay and Spent Grains

Hay and spent grains (such as those left over from brewing beer) can also make great substrates for certain types of mushrooms, like oyster mushrooms. They provide plenty of nutrients for fungal growth without needing much additional supplementation.

To prepare hay or spent grains:

  • Soak materials in water overnight.
  • Drain off excess liquid and fill containers with damp substrate.
  • Sterilize using boiling water or steam before inoculating with spawn.

One thing to keep in mind when using hay or spent grains is that they can be quite messy during preparation. They tend to clump together easily, which means you’ll need to spend more time breaking them apart before sterilization.

Sawdust and Wood Chips

Sawdust and wood chips are ideal substrates for many species of mushrooms, including shiitake and lion’s mane. They’re also relatively easy to obtain, especially if you have access to a local sawmill or tree removal service.

To prepare sawdust/wood chips:

  • Add gypsum (calcium sulfate) to help prevent clumping.
  • Mix in bran or other supplements to provide additional nutrients.
  • Sterilize using heat before inoculating with spawn.

One downside of using sawdust or wood chips is that they tend to dry out quickly, which means you’ll need to add moisture regularly during the incubation period.

Composting and Pasteurizing Your Substrate

After preparing your substrate, you’ll need to either compost it or pasteurize it depending on the type of mushroom you’re growing. Both methods serve the same purpose: eliminating any harmful microorganisms from your substrate while preserving as much beneficial bacteria as possible.

Composting involves letting your substrate sit for several days in a warm environment. This allows naturally occurring microorganisms to break down any leftover plant material, creating an ideal environment for beneficial fungus to thrive. Some mushroom species, like shiitake, require this type of conditioning process before they’ll grow properly.

Pasteurizing involves heating up your substrate without allowing it to decompose fully. This method kills off most harmful bacteria but leaves behind enough beneficial microorganisms for mushrooms to grow successfully. Pasteurization is generally faster than composting and may be a better choice if you’re short on time.

Preparing Your Substrate for Inoculation

Once your substrate has been composted or pasteurized, it’s ready for inoculation with mushroom spawn. The exact process will depend on the type of mushroom you’re growing and the materials you’re using, but here are some general steps:

  • Choose high-quality spawn from a reputable supplier.
  • Mix spawn thoroughly into your substrate using clean, gloved hands.
  • Pack the inoculated substrate into bags or containers and incubate in a warm, dark place until the mycelium (the white, thread-like substance that indicates mushroom growth) has colonized the entire substrate.
  • Move bags or containers to a fruiting chamber with proper lighting and humidity levels.

By following these steps for preparing your substrate, you’ll be well on your way to a successful mushroom harvest. Remember to choose the right type of substrate for your specific needs, compost or pasteurize it properly, and take care during inoculation to avoid contamination. With some patience and attention to detail, you’ll be enjoying delicious home-grown mushrooms in no time!

Sowing Your Mushroom Spores

Once you have chosen the type of edible mushroom you want to grow, it is time to start with the sowing process. This step is crucial for the healthy growth and development of your mushrooms, so it’s important to do it correctly.

Types of Spawn or Spores

Spawn, also known as mycelium, is a collection of thread-like structures that grow underground and give rise to fruiting bodies (the part we eat). Spawn can come in different forms:

  • Grain spawn: made by inoculating a nutrient-rich grain such as rye or millet with mushroom spores.
  • Sawdust spawn: sawdust mixed with mushroom spores and sterilized before use.
  • Plug spawn: wooden dowels inoculated with mushroom spores.

Spore prints are another way of sowing your mushrooms. It involves collecting spores from mature mushrooms and transferring them onto a growing substrate. However, this method isn’t recommended for beginners because it requires some knowledge about sterile techniques.

Common Inoculation Methods

Regardless of the type of spawn or spore you decide to use, there are three main methods for inoculating your substrate: with spawn, with spores, or through grain-to-grain transfer.

Inoculation with Spawn

Using spawn is one of the most common methods for inoculating your substrate because it produces quicker results than other methods. Here are some steps to follow when using spawn:

  1. Choose which type of substrate will work best for the variety of mushroom you’re growing.
  2. Sterilize your chosen substrate according to instructions specific to that type.
  3. Once cooled down, mix in the spawn (grain or sawdust) into the substrate until fully integrated.
  4. Place the mixture into a sealable bag or container (depending on size).
  5. Poke small holes in each side of the container or bag for ventilation.
  6. Place the container in a dark and warm place to incubate.
Inoculation with Spores

Inoculating your substrate with spores is slower than using spawn because it takes longer for the spores to colonize the growing medium fully.

  1. Choose your selected substrate.
  2. Sterilize the substrate according to instructions specific to that type.
  3. Once cooled down, add some water to make it more workable.
  4. Mix mushroom spores into the mixture and mix well until incorporated before placing into a container ready for incubation.
  5. Put them in a safe place that’s cool and free from moisture while waiting for any signs of colonization.
Grain-to-Grain Transfer

Grain-to-grain transfer involves transferring colonized grain from one jar/bag/container to populate another prepared with sterile grains without an extra inoculation step – making things speedier than waiting for re-inoculation with more spores, like in step two.

Here are some easy steps:

  1. First, you’ll need prepared sterilized grains resting in jars or bags
  2. Identify healthy mycelium visible under your grain (usually white)
  3. Transfer these grains directly onto uncolonized grains
  4. Let them rest until colonization occurs identically as above options.

Monitoring and Maintaining Climate Conditions

Growing edible mushrooms can be a delicate process that requires carefully monitored and maintained climate conditions. Without proper control over temperature, humidity, and other factors, your mushroom growth could suffer or even fail altogether. To help you avoid these pitfalls, we’ve compiled our top 10 essential steps for growing edible mushrooms.

Tools for Measuring Temperature and Humidity

Measuring temperature and humidity levels is essential when it comes to growing edible mushrooms. Without accurate readings, it can be difficult to determine whether your environment is optimal for growth.

To measure temperature, you’ll need a thermometer that can read both ambient air temperature as well as the substrate (the material on which your mushrooms are growing). Some common types of thermometers used in mushroom cultivation include:

  • Digital thermometers with attached probes
  • Infrared thermometers
  • Glass thermometers

Humidity levels can be measured using a hygrometer or a combination thermometer/hygrometer. These tools allow you to monitor both the relative humidity of the air and the moisture content of your substrate.

It’s important to note that different species of mushrooms have specific requirements for temperature and humidity levels. Make sure you research the optimal conditions for the type of mushroom you’re cultivating before setting up your monitoring equipment.

Adjusting Temperature and Humidity Levels

Once you’ve measured the temperature and humidity levels in your grow space, it’s time to make any necessary adjustments. Here are some tips for maintaining ideal conditions:

  • Use cold mist humidifiers to increase humidity levels if they’re too low.
  • Install fans or air conditioning units in spaces where temperatures are too high.
  • Cover your substrates with plastic bags or lids to trap in moisture if needed.
  • Adjust lighting fixtures so they don’t generate excessive heat.

Again, take care when making adjustments since different species may require very specific conditions.

Monitoring CO2 Levels

Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels can also impact the growth of your mushrooms. High CO2 levels can cause slowed growth and smaller fruiting bodies, while low levels can affect oxygen intake.

To monitor CO2 levels, you’ll need a carbon dioxide meter or monitor. These devices use infrared sensors to measure concentrations of CO2 in the air around your growing area.

If you find that CO2 levels are too high, try increasing ventilation by opening windows or installing exhaust fans. Conversely, adding more mushroom-growing bags or containers to a space with low CO2 can help increase concentrations.

Caring for Your Mushrooms During Different Growth Stages

As your mushrooms grow and develop, different care strategies may be needed at various stages. Here’s a rundown of what to watch for:

  • Spawn run: After inoculating your substrate with spores or culture, germination begins into a mass of white tissue called mycelium, known as spawn. During this stage keep temperature around 75F to 80F (24C-27C) and relative humidity between 75% to 100%. The type of strain is important because Oyster Mushroom Mycelium likes an environment anywhere from 63-77F (17-25C), Shiitake Mycelium likes from 77-86F (25-30C), and Reishi from 68°F – 77°F (20°C – 25°C).

  • Pinning: You should see tiny pinheads popping up like popcorn over the surface being grown on once it is time for pinning! Temperature ranges are highly dependent on which species many prefer temperatures below their spawn run period but use higher humidity rates typically between about ~85+%, with fresh air exchange.

  • Fruiting Stage: The last stage begins when mature fruits start grow and last until harvest day unless there’s contamination that requires removal. This stage can last up to several weeks depending on the variety of mushroom you are growing. During this period keep temperature between 65°F and 75°F (18°C-24°C), with relative humidity high at around 90%.

Some additional tips for nurturing your mushrooms at each stage include:

  • Providing fresh air circulation to prevent mold growth
  • Mist substrate regularly to maintain moisture levels if RH drops.
  • Harvest mature fruiting bodies promptly to avoid over-matured flavor inside and outside of the cap!

By following these steps and monitoring your grow space carefully, you’ll be well on your way to producing bountiful crops of delicious edible mushrooms!

Controlling Contamination

Growing edible mushrooms requires proper management and a good understanding of the different aspects involved in the cultivation process. One such aspect is controlling contamination. Mushroom growers must take extra care to protect their crops from various possibilities of contamination if they want to get high-quality, healthy, and safe produce.

Common Sources of Contamination

There are several common sources of contamination in mushroom growing, including:

  • Insects and pests that attack already infected or wounded mushrooms.
  • Mold spores, dust, fungi (other than edible ones), and bacteria from the environment.
  • Human activities such as touching substrate bags or trays with unclean hands.
  • Poor water quality or water containing heavy metals, chemicals, or biological contaminants.

In general, organic substrates have a higher risk of getting contaminated than other substrates. Therefore, utmost attention should be given to maintaining sanitation at every stage of growing mushrooms.

Preventative Measures You Can Take

To minimize potential risks from contaminants when growing edible mushrooms:

  1. Use clean practices: Keep your working area clean and disinfected with appropriate cleaning solutions suited for mushroom farming hygiene management regularly. Avoid using bleach because it can leave residues harmful to mycelium growth.

  2. Identify the source: Conduct regular checks inside your grow room for any possible sources that could lead to contamination problems before they occur.

  3. Choose high-quality spawn: Spawn refers to pure cultures grown on grain substrate that contains desired genetic properties for producing high-quality fruit bodies without contamination problems.

  4. Sterilize substrate: Sterilizing substrate through various methods like pressure cooking, pasteurization will prevent bacterial and fungal spores from contaminating throughout growth stages from spawn starting until harvest time altogether.

  5. Proper air filtration: A High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter helps remove airborne pollutants up so you don’t breathe them in which also means less possibility of spreading those pollutants onto your growing substrate.

  6. Wear protective clothing: Wearing proper gear such as gloves, hairnets, facemasks when working to reduce the spread of contaminants from human skin glands and hair onto the growing environment.

  7. Practice proper segregation of materials: Keep different substrates separate when processing them, avoid cross-contaminating raw materials and spawn during transport and storage.

  8. Maintain proper temperature: Keeping temperature ranges from 20-23C(68-73 F) is ideal for mushroom growth; maintaining it within these variations helps prevent contamination problems effectively.

Identifying and Treating Contaminated Substrates

If you follow all the precautions listed above still end up with contaminated substrates, you can try identifying and treating those contaminated areas or substrates through various methods depending upon kind of contaminant detected:

  1. Small contaminated patches on substrates can be removed by cutting them off or treated by spraying a diluted hydrogen peroxide solution (3%) to neutralize bacteria or fungal spores with care not to harm mycelium colonization affected areas severely.

  2. For molds and bacteria on nonporous surfaces like trays or bags, wiping them off with isopropyl alcohol will eliminate many microbial colonies due to its strong acidic property capable of eradicating germs at a molecular level.

  3. If contaminations are severe inside grow rooms filled entirely with multiple bags, displacing air may help remove contaminants that cling after filtering all interior environments using HEPA filter systems over time until clean atmospheres regain their previous state altogether.

Harvesting Your Mushrooms

Growing edible mushrooms is a rewarding and fulfilling experience, but getting to the point of harvesting your bountiful crop requires patience, attention to detail, and proper planning. When it comes to harvesting mushrooms, there are various techniques that can be used depending on the type of mushroom you are growing. Understanding when your mushrooms are ready for harvesting and applying the appropriate techniques will be essential in ensuring maximum yield and optimal mushroom quality.

Determining When Your Mushrooms Are Ready to Harvest

Knowing when your mushrooms are ready for harvest is crucial to ensure maximum yield and high-quality produce. The timing of harvest varies depending on the variety of mushroom being grown since each species has its own growth rate and fruiting cycle. Here are some guidelines you can use:

  • Button mushrooms – These should be harvested when their caps separate from their stems (known as opening) but before they begin to flatten out. Typically this happens around 3-4 days after they have fully formed.
  • Shiitake – They should be harvested when their caps have fully expanded, but before the edges begin to dry out or turn upwards which usually occurs between five to seven days after they start forming.
  • Oyster mushrooms – Depending on the strain, they may take anywhere from a few weeks up to two months before they are ready for harvest. The best way is to keep an eye on them daily waiting until you see white pins start growing between two large yellowish chunks.

The above guidelines provide a rough estimate of when you can expect your mushrooms varieties mentioned above to become ready for harvesting so remember these may vary based on environmental conditions such as temperature or humidity levels.

On top of knowing what time frame you’re expecting their readiness; Other signs that indicate whether your mushroom is mature enough include growth size -for example some specific shiitake strains grow quite big (upwards of ten inches), poor light intensity makes harvesting difficult, excessive dryness, malformed or “undesirable” shape. Waiting until the fruiting bodies are too big can lead to tough and fibrous flesh and a decline in flavor. On the other hand, harvesting too soon results in smaller yields.

Different Harvesting Techniques for Different Mushroom Varieties

Harvesting your mushrooms can be done most efficiently through different techniques; here are several common ones used:

  • Twisting – This method works well for button and oyster mushrooms because they have slender stems. Simply grip the stem as close to the cap as possible, twist it gently until it snaps but retains some of its threads (stems of mushrooms are full of nutrients), and pluck off 1 by 1.
  • Cutting – Shiitake strains’ thick stems make plucking impossible. For this reason, the ideal way to harvest shiitake is with scissors or sharp pruning shears. Take care when cutting so each one harvested will not damage adjacent flushes.
  • Scooping – Some mushroom growers use vegetable peelers to scoop away a thin layer where their crop attaches itself on which allows more space available for subsequent flushes.

In-depth knowledge about identifying strain characteristics play an important role in choosing picking techniques that yield maximum quantity while minimizing potential harm. As a result, always consult experienced local growers before embarking on this venture.

Maximizing Your Yield

Now that we have covered knowing when to harvest and applying suitable methods for obtaining your crop most effectively let’s get into how you can maximize your yield:

  • Have Ideal growing conditions – Mushrooms require very specific growing conditions like necessary humidity levels between 65%-75%, temperature ranges between 15C-27C with proper ventilation these will maintain peak likelihood of success growth parameters.
  • Don’t alter pH levels – Maintain appropriate soil pH levels because an excess dissolved salts from cropping materials could poison all developing mycelium chains greatly killing off good organisms that support growth.
  • Maintain cleanliness – Inoculation areas need to be kept clean, especially during fruiting flush cycles when spores burst leaving the air filled with fungal activity (which may cross-contaminate with undesirable strains of different species). It is advised always sanitize equipment used in harvesting such as pruning shears and other tools intended for such a use.

Proper Storage and Preservation Techniques

Mushrooms are not only a tasty addition to our meals but also beneficial to our health. They are loaded with nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants that help boost the immune system. It is essential to know how to store and preserve fresh mushrooms properly for them to last longer. Here are some techniques on proper storage and preservation of edible mushrooms:

Storing Fresh Mushrooms

Fresh mushrooms can last up to seven days if stored correctly. Below are ways on how you can store fresh mushrooms:

  1. Do not wash before storing: Avoid washing fresh mushrooms until you’re ready for cooking them since moisture makes them go bad quickly.

  2. Store in the fridge: Store them in a paper bag or an open container lined with paper towels in the refrigerator’s main compartment.

  3. Avoid plastic bags: Plastic bags don’t allow air circulation leading to moisture build-up, which shortens their shelf life.

  4. Check regularly: Check frequently for any sign of spoilage like a slimy texture or discoloration and discard those that seem rotten or mushy.

Preserving Mushrooms for Later Use

Preserving your freshly harvested or purchased mushrooms may be a good idea if you want them to stay longer than they would usually last if left fresh out on your counter tops after harvest or purchase date. Below are two methods:

1) Pickling

Pickling has been known as an effective way of preserving food by preserving it in acidic liquid (typically vinegar). When it comes to pickling mushroom use apple cider vinegar instead since its taste complements the mushroom flavor best..


  • 1 lb of trimmed button/slice cut mushroom
  • Apple cider vinegar
  • Whole spices (i.e., bay leaves, peppercorns)
  • Salt & sugar quantity should base on your preferred taste.


  1. In a large non-reactive bowl, mix 1 tablespoon of salt with the mushroom slices and set aside for 30 minutes to an hour.
  2. After that, rinse the mushrooms thoroughly under running water. Dry with clean paper towels to remove excess moisture.
  3. In a saucepan, bring apple cider vinegar and sugar to a boil until all the ingredients are dissolved. Then let it cool.
  4. Pack your cooled mushroom slices into dry jars.5Place some whole spices (i.e., bay leaves, peppercorn) in each jar poured with cooled vinegar mixture.
  5. Store in the refrigerator for at least two weeks before consumption.

2) Canning

Canning is another popular preservation method that involves putting food in airtight containers like jars or cans and heating them up to kill microorganisms such as yeasts and bacteria that cause spoilage.


  • Freshly trimmed button/slice cut mushroom
  • Salt & sugar quantity should base on your preferred taste
  • Lemon juice


  1. Clean all jars and lids in boiling water and let them air dry completely.
  2. Combine chopped mushrooms, desired amount of salt & lemon juice into a saucepan, cook over medium heat until tender (approximately 10 minutes).
  3. Once done filling sterilized canning jars with cooked mushrooms packed tightly leaving about an inch of space on top before sealing lid
  4. Process filled jars according to altitude-specific time (approximation – below 3k ft.: process pints for 45 minutes).

Freezing and Drying Methods

Another way you can store fresh mushrooms is by using freezing or drying methods below:

1) Freezing

Freezing is another common preservation technique suitable for most fruits and vegetables, including mushrooms.


  1. Wash your freshly harvested or purchased shrooms immediately unto cold water upon arrival – scrubbing off any dirt gently from caps without exposing them too long if possible (do not soak).
  2. Cut the stems and slice if desired.
  3. Parboil in salted boiling water for 5 minutes.
  4. Remove the mushrooms from hot water and immerse in icy water, then drain off excess moisture using a cloth or paper towel.
  5. Divide into portions of your preferred size before wrapping them using plastic wrap or vacuum sealing method.
  6. Label each bag with date of packaging and contents before storing in the freezer.

2) Drying

A slow drying process is more effective for shroom without losing nutritional value nor succumbing to botulism.


  1. Choose fresh mushrooms that are dry, healthy looking without black spots or discoloration around cap edges
  2. Wash immediately under cold running water but try not to soak if possible;  gently rubbing dirt off  caps
  3. Slice uniformly until all pieces are equal thickness(Preferably ½ inch slices)
  4. arrange on dehydrating trays leaving little space between them for air circulation
  5. Set dehydrator at appropriate mushroom temperature (125 t0 135-degree F) and leave it overnight approximately within 10-12 hours.
  6. Store out from light in a cool, dry location upon completion.

Storing edible mushrooms is easy as long as you follow the proper storage methods to keep their freshness intact while preserving their taste and texture at an optimum level.—maintaining its nutrient density, flavor complexity, texture quality, and nutritional benefits through pickling, canning, freezing & drying processes can give us peace of mind knowing shrooms won’t go to waste when harvested season’s generous bounty lies right before our kitchen countertops!

Troubleshooting Common Issues and Challenges

Growing edible mushrooms can be a rewarding experience. However, it is not without challenges as some issues may arise that could inhibit growth or potentially ruin your harvest.

Common Diseases and Pests

Similar to other plants, mushrooms are also prone to various diseases and pests. Below are some of the most common ones you should look out for:

  • Mushroom sciarid flies – These are small, black flies that feed on the mycelium of mushroom spores resulting in stunted growth.
  • Slime molds – These can colonize nutrient-rich media causing harm to growing mycelium.
  • Bacterial blotch – A type of bacterial infection that leads to the rotting of mushroom caps.
  • Wet bubble disease – A fungal disease characterized by slimy bubbles on the tops of mushrooms.

Identifying Fungal Diseases

To effectively treat fungal diseases, you must first correctly identify them. Here are some signs to help you do so:

  • White fuzzy spots: This usually indicates a mold infestation.
  • Slimy bubbles: If you notice slimy bubbles on top of your mushrooms, it’s likely wet bubble disease.
  • Yellow patches: Yellow patches on your mushroom caps indicate bacterial blotch.

Treating Fungal Diseases

Once you have identified a fungal disease, there are several steps you can take to treat it:

  • Remove all contaminated substrate from the area.
  • Lower temperature during incubation periods in order slow down spreading if it is caused by heat loving mushrooms or fungi (e.g Pleurotus spp). For example, bringing down temperatures below 20°C/68°F for at least five days will curb infection rates.
  • Increase ventilation by opening up windows or using fans to improve airflow.
  • Use a fungicide to eliminate the infection.

Identifying Pests

Pest infestations can also be challenging when growing mushrooms. If left untreated, it could lead to a significant loss of yield. Here are some common pests that you should look out for:

  • Mushroom flies – These tend to lay their eggs in your growing medium and on the surface of your mushrooms.
  • Mites – Mites can cause significant damage by feeding on the mycelium of mushrooms, which could inhibit growth and eventually lead to death.
  • Slugs and snails – These pests are known for causing extensive damage to fruits, vegetables and other crops.

Treating Pest Infestations

As with fungal diseases, once you have identified a pest infestation there are several steps you can take to resolve it:

  • Try natural methods like neem oil or insecticidal soaps as they are less harmful compared to other chemical options.
  • Isolate infected bags or trays from healthy ones by keeping them away in different shelves or even rooms.
  • Increase ventilation by opening all windows and doors or utilizing fans especially during fruiting periods since most fungus gnats come out after moisture levels have gone up significantly due to high humidity conditions.
  • Allow predators such as spiders helping eradicate flying insects if possible.
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